Recently, Polkadot, a project targeting compatibility has redefined its technology as heterogeneous sharding and attracted attention from many. Such a re-interpretation means that Polkadot has followed the path of QuarkChain to develop heterogeneous sharding technology. Even in exchanges, Polkadot engineers have expressed that even though the two projects have different roadmaps, the solutions the two projects provide create the same effects. In this article, we will introduce heterogenous sharding and the differences between the solutions of these two projects.submitted by QuarkChain to quarkchainio [link] [comments]
What is Heterogenous sharding?Bitcoin, anonymous tokens like ZCash and Grin, ETH, EOS, and all the pubic chains are all considered under the bigger umbrella of blockchain technology.The essence of blockchain technology comes from the arrangement and combination of the following four components:
QuarkChain is the first public chain that implemented heterogenous sharding technology. Heterogenous sharding treats each shard as one chain and each chain can configure the four components we mentioned based on its needs. Such design allows new technologies to be incorporated into a chain and such chains can be embedded into the overall system design easily. So different chains can host different consensus mechanisms, token economics, and ledger models.
Value of Heterogeneous shardingFrom the information above, the four elements for many public chains are fixed. They can no longer be changed, which limits the flexibility and adaptability of the whole blockchain system. Such a situation engenders three problems: forking due to upgrades, difficulty in building functionalities, and wastage of resources.
Forking due to upgrades: because it is difficult to upgrade a fixed framework, in order to enhance functionalities, forking becomes the only solution. However, forking brings about the loss of operation capital and the disintegration of community. For example, ETH 1.0 is not able to upgrade to 2.0 painlessly and now the project needs to abandon 1.0 and restart 2.0. This kind of failure is similar to when using a 5G phone, one would not be able to communicate to a 4G mobile phone and a 4G one unable to communicate with a 3G one. Such constraints would throw the mobile network market into scrambles. Similarly, for blockchain networks, hard fork upgrades will change the structure of the community and incur losses in the meanwhile.
Difficulty in building functionalities: the rigid infrastructure layer of public chains forces public chains to be restrictive about its clients instead of accommodating and servicing as many clients as possible. For example if a client would like to use consensus A while this particular public chain only supports consensus B, then the public chain will force the client to make tradeoff of its own development in order to meet the configuration of the public chain. Otherwise, the client would need to develop projects for multiple chains in order to satisfy all the internal requirements. The two solutions incur high costs and low efficiency; as such, public chains turn away many potential interested clients and have few active users.
Wastage of resources: A lot of public chains cannot upgrade flexibly due to their rigid frameworks. Developers in order to create new features decide to first launch their own chains and then add additional functionalities. As a result, the olderer public chains fail to upgrade and each new chain bears only a slight fraction of innovation. This situation reflects a wastage of resources with duplicate developments. It is foreseeable that the cycle of duplicate developments will perpetuate; each tiny new innovation will become a rigid framework that will be rendered obsolete when someone else will launch another new chain to replace it when adding new features.
One of the ways to end this vicious cycle is by offering a flexible framework that allows continuous addition and upgrades. We envision an entire framework that is flexible enough to allow direct merging of new features into the old networks where old and new co-exist seamlessly. This is where the value of heterogeneous sharding lays: with new features launching, one can simply add a new shard to enable the new features. For example, a new shard with anonymous coins can add privacy functions to the entire network, another shard for stable coins, and even a shard for Libra. By accommodating new and old functions alike, through continuously adding new features, one can guarantee the user base will be steadily growing instead of losing to other competitors. On the other hand, such a framework allows the network to gradually refine and upgrade. Our approach will build a system that all blockchains can coexist and complement each other harmoniously. Users will no longer need to make difficult decisions such as whether to migrate to another project for better configurations or hard forking.
Other than that, as the industry continues to evolve, the complement between alliance chain and public chain is becoming an inevitable trend. In the future, enterprise-level applications will require an infrastructure layer solution that connects public chains and alliance chains well together to satisfy demands from all fronts. This is precisely what heterogenous chains can achieve.
QuarkChain VS Polkadot VS ETH2.0 VS CosmosEven though the detailed solutions of QuarkChain and Polkadot are different, the logics in the bottom layer are the same: through supporting shards or sub-chains or parallel chains with different characteristics for data exchanges, the solution will enhance compatibility, interoperability, and composability. We term this comprehensive solution that includes heterogeneous sharding and cross shard technology as heterogeneous multi-chain technology.
Overall, Polkadot provides a hub that allows users to release a new chain easily. Among the released chains, one can cross the chains for communications. At this stage, each chain can pick its consensus mechanism out of the three options that Polkadot provides. For protection, Polkadot’s hub will provide hashing power to protect the chains launched under the hub. Cosmos has a similar strategy: users can leverage its API to launch a new chain easily but one would need to take its own risk in protecting its from attacks. Users are welcome to customize the configuration of each of the four components.
While Polkadot provides heterogeneous sharding, QuarkChain also allows cross-chain mechanism. Through the root chain of QuarkChain, one can add shard chains as added. For each shard chain, one can configure each of the four components flexibly.
We can compare Polkadot, ETH 2.0, Cosmos, and QuarkChain in the following table:
As the community sees the need for flexibility more, the entire industry has turned its aim to adopt a heterogeneous multi-chain structure. It achieves two things: it enables a more flexible framework and connects alliance and public chains. This approach will prevent a flooding of similar chains and focus on developing the community altogether more efficiently. Through this flexible network approach, all projects will work together to explore the limitless possibility of blockchain technology.
Website：https://www.quarkchain.io Telegram：https://t.me/quarkchainio Twitter：https://twitter.com/Quark_Chain Medium：https://medium.com/quarkchain-official Reddit：https://www.reddit.com/quarkchainio/ Facebook：https://www.facebook.com/quarkchainofficial/ Discord：https://discord.me/quarkchain
submitted by liuidaxmn to u/liuidaxmn [link] [comments]
DEWA Inks Deal With Alibaba For Blockchain And IoT Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) said it has signed a MoU with Alibaba Cloud, the data intelligence backbone of Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba Group as part of the utility’s ongoing efforts to enhance its digital services.
Swedish Government Auctions Cryptocurrency Again The Swedish Enforcement Authority, Kronofogden, is once again auctioning off cryptocurrency that has been allotted for public sale. The online auction, which is the second of this kind the government agency conducts, starts on Friday, October 11. Kronofogden first auctioned Bitcoins it had in its custody about two years ago, when the highest bid was placed at 43,000 Swedish krona.
US And China Agree ‘Phase 1’ Trade Deal; Trump Suspends October Tariff Hike The United States and China agreed on Oct 11 to the first phase of a deal to end a trade war, prompting President Donald Trump to suspend a threatened tariff hike, but officials said the agreement had to be put on paper and more work was required to get it finalised. The real-time exchange rate between USD and RMB is 7.0892 currently.
David Marcus: Respect Visa And Mastercard’s Decision To Wait For Regulatory Clarity For Libra To Proceed After several companies announced their withdrawal from cryptocurrency Libra’s management association lead by Facebook, Libra project leader David Marcus said on Twitter, “Special thanks to @Visa and @Mastercardfor sticking it out until the 11th hour. The pressure has been intense (understatement), and I respect their decision to wait until there’s regulatory clarity for @Libra_to proceed, vs. the invoked threats (by many) on their biz.” He also added, “I would caution against reading the fate of Libra into this update. Of course, it’s not great news in the short term, but in a way it’s liberating. Stay tuned for more very soon. Change of this magnitude is hard. You know you’re on to something when so much pressure builds up.”
SEC, CFTC, FinCEN Warn Crypto Industry To Follow US Banking Laws The heads of three U.S. financial regulators warned the cryptocurrency industry to abide by banking laws in a joint statement published Friday. The statement, signed by Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) Chairman Heath Tarbert, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) Director Kenneth Blanco and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Chairman Jay Clayton, “reminds” actors in the crypto space that they must comply with various banking and financial services laws in the U.S., regardless of what they call their cryptocurrencies or tokens.
Encrypted project calendar（October 12, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin: The 2019 Global Mining Leaders Summit will be held in Chengdu, China from October 12th to 14th. BLAST (BLAST): 12 October 2019 (or earlier) Masternode & Assets “Masternode functionality and versionbits signalling for Assets will become active on the BLAST network at block height 1710000.” Pundi X (NPXS): and 1 other 12 October 2019 Token Removal “The next token removal will take place on the second Saturday of October OKEX OKToken: 12 October 2019 Global Mining Summit “We’re bringing together the global leaders who are shaping the crypto mining industry today. Attendance is limited to 300 invited guests.” Bitcoin Fast (BTCF): 12 October 2019 Staking Announcement Details about staking BTCF will be shared.
Encrypted project calendar（October 13, 2019）
LINK/ChainLink: ChainLink (LINK) will be held in Tokyo on October 13th by a collaboration between QuarkChain, bitgrit, Chainlink and Vechain. Veros (VRS): 14 October 2019 Launch of News Service “Launch of the VEROS NEWS service.”
Encrypted project calendar（October 14, 2019）
BCH/Bitcoin Cash: The ChainPoint 19 conference will be held in Armenia from October 14th to 15th. Veros (VRS): 14 October 2019 Launch of News Service “Launch of the VEROS NEWS service.”
Encrypted project calendar（October 15, 2019）
RUFF/RUFF Token: Ruff will end the three-month early bird program on October 15th KAT/Kambria: Kambria (KAT) exchanges ERC20 KAT for a 10% bonus on BEP2 KAT-7BB, and the token exchange reward will end on October 15. BTC/Bitcoin: The Blockchain Technology Investment Summit (CIS) will be held in Los Angeles from October 15th to 16th. OTOCASH (OTO): 15 October 2019 Escodex Shutdown “ All OTO HOLDERs who have assets on ESCODEX EXCHANGE to immediately withdraw your assets before October 15th, 2019 4:00 PM” (CRYPTO): 15 October 2019 Hard Fork Summit Hard Fork Summit 2019 by TNW . “Where finance and business meets tech.” Amsterdam, October 15–17. Cardano (ADA): 15 October 2019 NYC Meetup “Next week on October 15th Nathan Kaiser, Chairperson of the Cardano Foundation, will be in attendance to meet community members in NYC FunFair (FUN): 15 October 2019 Marketing AMA “The FunFair Marketing AMA… will be held on Tuesday the 15th of October at 2pm in the Live team chat channel on Discord Ark (ARK): 15 October 2019 ARK Core v2.6 on Devnet “We are very excited to announce #ARK Core v2.6 will be launching on #Devnet, October 15th, 2019! “ DigiByte (DGB): 15 October 2019 BitMart Listing DigiByte (DGB) will be listed on BitMart Exchange on October 15, 2019. The following trading pair will be available: DGB/BTC. ThoreNext (THX): 15 October 2019 Staking Goes Live “Staking live from 15 OCT 2019.”
Encrypted project calendar（October 16, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin: The 2019 Blockchain Life Summit will be held in Moscow, Russia from October 16th to 17th. MIOTA/IOTA: IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on the theme of “Technology Problem Solving and Testing IoT Devices” at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on October 16. ETH/Ethereum: Ethereum launches Istanbul (Istanbul) main network upgrade, this main network upgrade involves 6 code upgrades. QTUM/Qtum: Qtum (QTUM) Qtum main network hard fork is scheduled for October 16. (CRYPTO): and 1 other 16 October 2019 Supply Chains Unblocked Supply Chains Unblocked in London from 9:30 AM — 6 PM. Binance Coin (BNB): 16 October 2019 Singapore Meetup “Bring your friends to come along with, & it will be FUN! With snacks and drinks.” IoTeX (IOTX): 16 October 2019 Mainet Beta “The next evolution of IoTeX blockchain, secure IoT hardware, and decentralized identity is coming October 16 — mark your calendars.” Selfkey (KEY): 16 October 2019 Corporate Wallet Release “Soon, wallet users will be able to manage corporate profiles and identity attributes.” Cardano (ADA): 16 October 2019 Washington D.C. Meetup “Nathan Kaiser, Chairperson of the Cardano Foundation, will join the community in Washington DC on Oct 16, and talk about the recent
Encrypted project calendar（October 17, 2019）
Holo (HOT): 17 October 2019 Redgrid AMA “Join us for the AMA with RedGrid on October 17th. Submit your questions before the AMA on our Holochain Dev Forum.” IOST (IOST): 17 October 2019 Breeding Competition Ends “Join IOST 2nd Breeding Competition by @FishChainGame now! The competition only lasts till 17 Oct” Aragon (ANT): 17 October 2019 Seoul Meetup “You are invited to join @licuende for a meetup and presentation on ‘Aragon and DAOs: What’s next after ICOs and DeFi?’” Skycoin (SKY): 17 October 2019 NYC Skywire Meetup NYC Skywire Mainnet Meetup in NYC from 6–8 PM. Horizen (ZEN): 17 October 2019 Weekly Insider Team updates at 3:30 PM UTC/ 11:30 AM EDT: Engineering, Node network, Product/UX, Helpdesk, Legal, BD, Marketing, CEO Closing thoughts, AMA.
Encrypted project calendar（October 18, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin: The SEC will give a pass on the VanEck/SolidX ETF on October 18th and make a final decision HB/HeartBout: HeartBout (HB) will officially release the Android version of the HeartBout app on October 18. OKB (OKB): 18 October 2019 Rotterdam Meetup “Meet us in Rotterdam on 18 Oct as we partner up with Crypto010 Meetup to bring you a talk on ‘Decentralized Finance’.” HeartBout (HB): 18 October 2019 Android Version “18th of October 2019 will be officially released Android version of HeartBout app.” BTU Protocol (BTU): and 2 others 18 October 2019 Paris Blockchain Summit The event will gather major international key players of the Blockchain ecosystem including well-known influencers, investors, government…
Encrypted project calendar（October 19, 2019）
PI/PCHAIN Network: The PCHAIN (PI) backbone (Phase 5, 82 nodes, 164, 023, 802 $ PI, 7 candidates) will begin on October 19. LINK/ChainLink: Diffusion 2019 will be held in Berlin, Germany from October 19th to 20th DeepBrain Chain (DBC): 19 October 2019 (or earlier) Deploy Main Chain “Deploy Main Chain,” during the third week of October. General Event (CRYPTO): and 1 other 19 October 2019 Free State Blockchain “This “unconference” style event brings together some of the top financial tech innovators, researchers, company leaders, and other…” PCHAIN (PI): 19 October 2019 Main Chain Voting “Main chain: Epoch 5, 82 nodes, 164,023,802 $PI, 7 Candidates, voting will start on Oct. 19th.” Nash Exchange (NEX): 19 October 2019 Nash Anniversary Nash will present their work from the third quarter of 2019. Team members will be present and to answer your questions in person.
Encrypted project calendar（October 20, 2019）
GameCredits (GAME): 20 October 2019 (or earlier) Mining Reward Drop GameCredits mining reward will be cut in half at block 2519999 (~October 20). This will be the 4th halvening of the GAME mining reward!
Encrypted project calendar（October 21, 2019）
KNC/Kyber Network: The official online hackathon of the Kyber Network (KNC) project will end on October 21st, with more than $42,000 in prize money.
Encrypted project calendar（October 22, 2019）
ZRX/0x: The 0x protocol (ZRX) Pantera blockchain summit will be held on October 22.
Encrypted project calendar（October 23, 2019）
MIOTA/IOTA: IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on October 23rd at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles with the theme “Connecting the I3 Market and Experiencing Purchase and Sales Data.” BTC/Bitcoin: The WBS World Blockchain Summit (Middle East) will be held in Dubai from October 23rd to 24th.
Encrypted project calendar（October 24, 2019）
BCN/Bytecoin: Bytecoin (BCN) released the hidden amount of the Bytecoin block network on October 24.
Encrypted project calendar（October 25, 2019）
ADA/Cardano: Cardano (ADA) The Ada community will host a community gathering in the Dominican Republic for the first time on October 25.
Encrypted project calendar（October 26, 2019）
KAT/Kambria: Kambria (KAT) Kambria will host the 2019 Southern California Artificial Intelligence and Data Science Conference in Los Angeles on October 26th with IDEAS. BTC/Bitcoin: CoinAgenda Global Summit will be held in Las Vegas from October 26th to 28th
Encrypted project calendar（October 28, 2019）
LTC/Litecoin: Litecoin (LTC) 2019 Litecoin Summit will be held from October 28th to October 29th in Las Vegas, USA BTC/Bitcoin: Mt.Gox changes the debt compensation plan submission deadline to October 28 ZEC/Zcash: Zcash (ZEC) will activate the Blossom Agreement on October 28th
Encrypted project calendar（October 29, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin: The 2nd World Encryption Conference (WCC) will be held in Las Vegas from October 29th to 31st.
Encrypted project calendar（October 30, 2019）
MIOTA/IOTA: IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on October 30th at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on the topic “How to store data on IOTA Tangle.”
Encrypted project calendar（November 1, 2019）
INS/Insolar: The Insolar (INS) Insolar wallet and the redesigned Insolar Block Explorer will be operational on November 1, 2019.
Encrypted project calendar（November 6, 2019）
STEEM/Steem: The Steem (STEEM) SteemFest 4 conference will be held in Bangkok from November 6th to 10th.
Encrypted project calendar（November 8, 2019）
BTC/Bitcoin: The 2nd Global Digital Mining Summit will be held in Frankfurt, Germany from October 8th to 10th.
Encrypted project calendar（November 9, 2019）
CENNZ/Centrality: Centrality (CENNZ) will meet in InsurTechNZ Connect — Insurance and Blockchain on October 9th in Auckland.
At the time of writing, Bitcoin is trading down marginally at its current price of $8,250 which marks a slight retrace from its daily highs of $8,445. Ever since BTC bounced from its support level at $8,600, the cryptocurrency has been facing a bout of consolidation after its upwards momentum stalled, which may mean that its bulls do not have enough strength at the moment to push the cryptocurrency higher.
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